This is an etching process . To express fine shades of gray here resin powder is dusted on the plate and fused . The acid will then only the metal around the resin granules corrode causing a certain roughness occurs . By varying the etsduur will print these zones more or less dark. The name arose because the aquatint technique was used to simulate a pen and wash drawing initially.
A watercolor is a direct painting executed in a fast-drying watercolor , often moistened paper . The “wet” technique is based on quick response and short but concentrated work . Characteristic for the watercolor painting are the multifarious light effects and soft contours , by washing ( wipe paint ) and can be achieved . By the method of applying the paint on wet paper The paint used is becoming translucent . The substrate must therefore also be light
Acrylic is a synthetic type of paint . First used in the forties , outlining the main features of oil and watercolor are brought together . The paint can be used to create various effects , ranging from very thin to thick layers of paint applied brush work . Acrylic paint is diluted with water . It dries quickly and adheres to almost any surface . Can sometimes be a disadvantage, the fast drying the paint dries water onto which may be there. No further adjustments are made However, there is a means acrylic slower to dry : retarder .
BISTER ( STAIN )
Red or brown soot ink , a mixture of wood soot (fireplace soot ) or ground bark of walnuts and gum arabic or shellac . Bister comes from the French word for ¨ ¨ bistre brown, hazel, dark brown or chocolate brown.
Color steendrukprocedee , sometimes carried on canvas with intent to mimic a painting. For each color to use a separate stone was prepared , and these were printed in register go over each other ( it was that for a single print thirty stones were needed ) . The technique originated around 1830 and until the end of the 19th century the most popular method to make color reproductions (which are also called chromo ‘s) then took over the other techniques .
Made around 1890 Henri de Toulouse – Lautrec ( and in his imitation include Paul Gauguin ) for an artistic revival of color lithography.
This is one for which an etching process with etching ground coated polished copper plate is used. The drawing is transferred by this point calk with instrumentation. That tool is that a rough , gives a broken line. Most used is the mattoir with his pointed , granulated or gnarled bottom . In addition, a roulette ( roll with excellent dots ) used . At the place where the plate was printed came to lie . Many small dots in the exposed copper These were then etched in acid. The look and feel like a chalk or pastel drawing. For there are more like ink is sometimes used with the color of red chalk . It is an old reproduction technique ( 18th century ) which now lost its real meaning
The intaglio is next to the high pressure , surface pressure and pressure by one of the four main printing . The image of the printing forme lies in the plane . An impression is made of the ( reduced recessed ) surface of the printing plate. The thin ink on the printing plate and the excess pressure is smeared afgerakeld ( that is, with a vertically disposed on the pressure plate moving strip of metal or plastic). Examples of gravure are : burin engraving , drypoint, etching, vernis -mou , mezzo – tint , color etching , crayonmanier , aquatint , the ” punch way ‘ , stipple engraving , helio .
An image painted on transparent material , which can be viewed from two sides , often arranged in a semicircle and plastic working. Varying lighting changes the image , which, for example a morning landscape in an evening landscape can change . The diorama was developed by Daguerre in 1822
The blister is in addition to the high pressure , low pressure and flattening one of the four main printing . Examples of blister are template printing and screen printing .
Here is scratched with a hard steel or diamond needle directly into the plate. The ink is then held also called by the resulting grooves but also raised mainly by the rough edges , burrs . The ink is held in the burr gives the print a warm tonal and exhibit a velvety character . These burrs wear out quickly when afkuisen and therefore the maximum number of good prints very limited ( max 15-30 for copper ) . This technique is called dry because there is no acid in sight . In fact, this is not a technique of etching but a shape of engraving. The dry needle technique is often used in combination with etching , among other things to the etching during the creation of proofs to update .
There are four distinct printing : the high pressure, low pressure , the surface pressure and pressure.
The word ” etching ” comes from the German ” Atzen ” that ” do eat”. It is a process in which a metallic drawing is bleached by an acid with the purpose of to make a print . The drawing is fitted in a mirror in the etching ground with an etching needle . The are then exposed to a dilute acid, which eats away at that place the metal . By this etching needle being scratched parts of the etching ground, Then, the etching ground removed ink in the bleached parts rubbed and a print made by the plate with a sheet of paper covered with a gravure press by winning . The etching is an engraving technique .
Fresco is an indication of a mural on wet plaster . On one wall is a layer of fresh lime applied over a charcoal drawing . While this layer dries , it is painted with lime in and later dissolved in water, pigments. This ” paint ” is a chemical compound with the drying lime layer, leaving a lasting mural created.
Glass that has been colored by means of a method where the colors are fixed by heating . The glass is heated from about 650-690 ° C in order to connect the applied paint ( with heavy metal oxides ) with the glass.
Paper with shovel edge , vergure and watermark , inspired by early handmade papers.
Graph is crystallized carbon in platelets ( Carboniferous ) , used, for instance tekenstift.Grafiet is a mineral known traditionally . It is a soft , greasy feeling fabric. This is made up of carbon plates that easily shrug off against each other. In compressed form , it is suitable to draw . Graphite is heat resistant and was used for molds of cannonballs . Today it is widely used in nuclear reactors .
When the engraver engraving draws directly on the metal surface. He uses a burin , a three-sided beveled at the end instrument . The hardness of the material (copper or steel) the engraving is characterized by its somewhat angular character . Like the etching is an example of the engraving gravure .
The high pressure is next to the intaglio, planographic printing and print one of the four main printing . The high pressure is a technique in which the drawing is increased pressure in the ink -bearing surface , typography , woodcut , wood engraving , Japanese woodcut .
To do this work with wood block . The method is heavy, but there is a much finer line work are applied . Crosscut on It is worked out now with very fine engravers and gouges .
The woodcut is one of the oldest graphic techniques . It is a relief printing technique , ie all non-cutaway , high-lying parts are inked and pressing down . The drawing you can draw directly on the wooden plate with a soft pencil . The print will be the mirror image of the original drawing . Wood is strong and tough and cutting the drawing is not always easy , especially when you cut against the grain in . Linoleum is an easier material for that matter , but wood has its own structure that gives his woodcut specific character . Various types of wood are suitable . There are special , rather expensive especially for woodcut plates , but you can also plywood , plywood or MDF new use . Required materials : wood , gouges ( curved V – gouge, U- gouge and a straight holguts ) , oil – or water-based ink , ink roller and paper .
The term has two meanings . First, it refers to the applied in a thick layer of oil or acrylic in which the strokes of brush or brush or visible traces of the palette knife . Furthermore, the term refers to the way in which the artist paint is applied , to call through the texture emotion and drama or underline . His fight with matter
Fabric composed of carbon black or dyes ( pigments ) , triturated with a binders, or dissolved in solvents. This substance is used to transfer an image on an image carrier of a form (paper , cardboard , foil , textiles) through one of the printing (high, deep , flat , or / silkscreen ) .
The term installation , which was originally used to place an artwork in the gallery , only later also a way of art will indicate . When installation art , the individual elements together are considered a single work within a certain space , the work is often designed for a particular gallery . Such works are so made for that special location and have nowhere else to be drawn again, the setting is as much part of the artwork as the parts of which it is composed . The installation art , which was introduced at the end of the sixties when pop artists such as Andy Warhol ‘ environments’ went designs for their happenings is a typical form of theatrical dramatization of space. Plants are very often temporary, while most permanent installations , as they often are unsaleable , especially for large private collections are made .
One way of printing, in which a printing form in multiple colors or shades of color, in a single pass , deliquescent in each other , is pressed. This method is the major forms of printing used in all four .
Technology and the art of the manufacture of pottery, porcelain , etc.
The biggest advantage of color pencil is that you can draw fine detail without much trouble. With a brush is that much harder . A disadvantage is that large areas of color are not uniformly more streaky or grainy. Crayon can be combined with watercolor and pastel as well: with it you can create flat areas of color , while drawing the details with colored pencil . That is perhaps the best way to make , especially on smooth paper . Highly realistic illustrations There are also watercolor pencils , the dye is soluble in water , so you can create a kind of watercolor . These are best to use on rough paper, plain colored pencils on smooth paper
LAMINATING / cellophaning / lamination (search )
Process to photosensitive paper to transfer drawings and sculptures , photography, graphic photography , light print , contact printing , chemigrafie , peer processes , luminografie
The linocut or linoleum is like the woodcut a form of high pressure.
The linocut is a graphical technique : with a gouge out an image linoleum cut an image . The plate is rolled with ink . Thereafter, a paper placed on the inked plate and made by rubbing with a ball of a print object . You can recognize a high pressure on the bead : the edge ink that occurs when the press under high pressure the ink under the pressure squeezes form . At the back of the paper you often see a pressure from the printing form . We call this a ‘must’ . For each color must either be a separate piece of linoleum can be cut or one works via a reduction method , in which the same piece of linoleum continues to be re-used. Linoleum is composed of a mixture of cork , wood flour and color pigments, bound by oxidised linseed oil . The whole is mounted on a layer of jute or pre-processed felt .
Mezzo Tint is an engraving technique , that is to say, that the drawing is applied . Directly in the plate This is also a “dry ” technique and thus no etching process . The plate is roughened with a crib iron (or a round file , aka rat tail ) so that the plate would give . Fully granulated black print Then back made smooth with scraper and scrapers zones . The black areas are also updated with drypoint and burin . The rough parts of the plate . Hold the ink solid, the polished parts They work from black to white and so is a mezzotint engraving therefore more dark than light , whence the name “black art ” comes . The view is like the velvety drypoint
Should / should print : search
This is the most commonly used form of the rotation lithography or lithography ( sheet material not only aluminum , but also electrostatic paper described above, and paper with a thin layer of plastic ) . The big difference with lithography is not in the use of the various panels , but in the immediacy of the print : lithograph print the mirror image of the stone , offset press off first to a rubber blanket , mirrored so , and then press the rubber cloth on the paper.
The application of the first color patches on the surface of a monochrome picture .
Oil is made up of pigment ( dye) that is bound with oil, usually linseed oil . Italian writings indicate the Bruggia Giovanni ( John of Bruges ) as the inventor of the oil . Giorgio Vasari , Italian art biographer , referred , in 1551 , with the Brugia Giovanni ¨ ¨ Jan van Eyck . However, this is premature. Van Eyck was not the first with oil instead of egg and glue (tempera ) painted . Robert Campin (1375-1444) , also known as the Master of Flémalle , was one of the first who worked with oil , but Jan van Eyck , the technique of oil paint and varnish or sublimated : several layers of highly translucent oil on each other . Oil has many advantages . It dries slowly, so that there are always changes in the representation can be made. Oil can be with brush or palette knife on canvas. Especially the very small difference between wet and dry oil paint is very suitable . After all, once you see how your painting will look like. You can always improve in the wet paint . Failed parts can always be improved .
Originally named one panel painting that painting wooden panels which were used as substrate . The painting on such visual or painted surface , is a panel painting. In place of the wooden surface later joined the small sizes also copper plates to pass and finally cloths that were strained in a wooden frame and fitted with a primer . The panel painting has its origins in the mummy paintings of late antiquity and the Byzantine icon painting, which made religious effigies for everyone that way. Western art has its first panel paintings in the so-called antependien , ie the movable attachment of the altar . For the 14th century in Western art panel painting in fact the altar picture. The panel was really important in the development of painting from the 14th century, when canvas and wood panel almost equal image bearers were
Wooden carrier for a picture, consisting of one or more specially processed boards.
Paper can be defined as : A sheet consisting of vegetable , mineral or synthetic fibers , possibly other added substances . The sheet formed by dewatering on a sieve , after which it is pressed and dried
The literal meaning : chewed paper. It is a composition of paper waste / chips and adhesive ( gum, and if necessary . Gypsum ), which is used for the manufacture of a mold or model . It is more durable when it is in oily form , compressed , and dried under high temperature.
Form Painter with artificial , usually brightly colored chalk , made by binding with resin or gum . Dry dye It is a technique that between drawing and painting in it . Pastel is mainly performed on semi-soft paper involving a wide range of effects , ranging from sharp lines and soft shading , can be achieved . The color layer can then be mixed by the chalk dust falling to the finest gradations and is often preserved with a fixative. However, by sketching some caution commanded pastel is powdery in nature and is easily smeared . With its subtle colors and velvety texture , this material is ideal for making portraits .
Thickly applied layers of paint , especially the Impressionists and Expressionists .
Paint composed of pigments. A pigment is a colored powder . You can not use it so . It should be bonded with a fluid . So the powder stays together . Pigments can get you out of stone , earth , plants and metals. Being crushed or rubbed . If binder is oil used for oil . For ‘ temperature ‘ paint egg used . Gum is the binder for watercolor and gouache .
Plastic is in Greek : plássein , ie forms a soft mass . In a narrower sense the term plastic means making three dimensional model learnable , during treatment soft materiaal.Voor chiseling in harder material is the usual notion of sculpture . The sculpture fits both possibilities.
The punch is a way in which engraving beaten . Punch and hammer with little or gross points in the polished plate The drawing is made up of dots of different size and distance from each other .
The pencil as we know it was invented in 1790 by NJ Conte.De bit consists of mixture of graphite and klei.Dit mixture is placed in an oven gebakken.Grafiet indicates the pencil writing vermogen.De substance is a form of pure carbon , one of the softest mineral . While writing carbon layers flaking off, leaving the sheet of paper on a black trace is drawn
Satin , wood-free , very greaseproof , waterproof and good airtight paper.
The fine network of lines or dots . Term from the reproduction technique .
Relief is a two-dimensional form of ( sculpture ) art. There are two forms: one can show in the surface of the material making ( Bas -relief ) or you can edit the material such that the representation as it were, on the surface will lie ( High Relief ) .
Reproduction or reproduction ( in the form of a card , photo , poster , figurine , etc. ) is not original artwork . Graphic reproductions are usually printed in offset and in wide circulation.
Sfumato or be ‘ smoked ‘ . Developed by Leonardo da Vinci method of painting : with fading outlines work .
The original form of surface pressure. A polished porous limestone (now also a metal or even paper – with – plastic plate with structure , grain ) is treated to the parts pressing repel water and accept ink and the residual ink and repels water takes . As a metal sheet is aluminum nowadays are almost always used . These plates can be clamped around a rotary printing cylinder , and thus it is possible , and then may be much higher speeds.
Here we paint with a sugar solution gouache on prepared etching plate . Then we bring to ground and afdekvernis . By then lay the painted plate in water dissolves the sugar , which takes the varnish and the ground with it, and the acid can corrode directly to the positive image . This we prevent galling again in part by the powdered resin method
Painting techniques with which protein or glue binding colors are painted . Gypsum or chalk on a substrate This technique was used mainly for the rise of oil painting in the 15th century ( eg the panel painting in the Middle Ages ) . The pure , non- glossy color substance at the tempera technique was brought to shine , while nowadays precisely its matte surface values , which is caused . By the absence of oil by a layer of varnish in the Middle Ages
Way in which something is made how the surface of the material to the touch and that the structure looks like. From fibers, etc. It is partly the texture that the reflectivity , the way the light reflected from the object states .
Book Printing . Literally : writing with stamps .
Very precious bright blue dye made from crushed the rare semi-precious stone lapis lazuli .
Cover with gold ( or gold powder ), thin sheets of gold leaf are stuck on the protein surface.
A quick-drying type paint (oil varnish , lakvernis ) . Eg paintings from the effects of strong light or to protect painted with varnish
This is an etching process , wherein the metal plate with a soft sticky varnish ( together melted fat and ball varnish ) is coated . Then , a fine – grained or coarse paper laid on which you draw with a hard pencil . Therefore the paper sticks to the varnish fixed . Removing the paper , then they pull which varnish there is at those places , and the metal is at those places exposed. The etching plate can now be etched with acids . The picture looks like a chalk or pencil . This is due to the structure of the paper, which gives grain broken lines.
The surface pressure is next to the gravure , letterpress printing and print one of the four main printing . On level pressure are the printing and non-printing parts in the same plane , lithography , chromolithography , combination printing , monotype techniques , offset , offset color printing , litho screen printing , stencil reproduction .
A screen printing is a print that with the aid of a template mounted on the screen ( silk , gauze, nylon , metal, glass, etc.) is printed . The template can either manually , mechanically or photographically made . Clipped templates are being put under a fabric mesh that is stretched on a frame . The paper is placed immediately below the bottom of the sieve and the templates. Over the top of the sieve , and ink is applied with a rubber blade ( the doctor blade ) , this ink is pushed forward through the sieve . The image on the screen consists of everything that has not been covered. By a template Each new color of the screen means the re- covering of the shapes you want. Not printed Due to the variation of thickness of the mesh can be the thickness of the ink layer is affected. This makes it possible , e.g. opaque colors pressing ( coarse mesh ) but also fine screens ( with fine mesh ) . In other techniques like etching , lithograph or woodcut is always mirrored the performance , the screen is not so. Moreover, can also be printed . On materials other than paper A screen printing process is easily recognized by the fact that the ink is on the paper. Furthermore, there are other colors printed on opaque and there is no ‘ need ‘ to see. ( An imprint of the printing form )
Paper or other material that contains no acid , consuming or corrosive substances .
This is an etching process. To express fine shades of gray here resin powder is dusted on the plate and fused. The acid will then only the metal around the resin granules corrode causing a certain roughness occurs. By varying the etsduur will print these zones more or less dark. The name arose because the aquatint technique was used to simulate a pen and wash drawing initially.