This term is a group of American artists who regard was during the forties and fifties of the twentieth century. They felt that the true subject of art consisted of the inner emotions of man , from his innermost feelings . And for this purpose they exploited the fundamental aspects of the painting process , such as gesture , color, shape and texture because of their symbolic potential.
Within the abstract expressionism to distinguish different forms : New York School , American -Type Painting , Action Painting and Color Field Painting. Despite the diversity in style , the artists shared many experiences and beliefs . Growing up during the Depression and World War II had led to a loss of faith in current ideologies and artistic styles that were associated with it . The Abstract Expressionism gained international recognition after the traveling exhibition ‘The New American Painting “of the MoMA (Museum of Modern Art, New York) , who donned eight European countries in 1958-59 .
Abstract expressionist artists are: William Baziotes (1912-1963) , Willem de Kooning (1904-1997), Arshile Gorky (1905-1948) , Adolph Gottlieb (1903-1974), Philip Guston (1913-1980), Hans Hofmann (1880 -1966 ) , Robert Motherwell (1915-1991), Lee Krasner (1911-1984) , Barnett Newmann (1905-1970), Jackson Pollock (1912-1956), Ad Reinhardt (1913-1967), Mark Rothko (1903-1970), Clyfford Still (1904-1980) and Mark Tobey (1890-1976).
Art Informel, or formless art, is the umbrella name for include material painting , lyrical abstraction and action painting . Different names for the gestural abstract painting style , the international art world of the mid- forties to late fifties controlled . Although there are quite a few substantive differences between the various terms , they do have one thing in common : the artists who dealt with this style had radical departure from the prevailing art styles of the period immediately after the war. According to the artists could poverty, suffering and anger of that time are not displayed , but only expressed . Individualism , authenticity , spontaneity and emotional and physical engagement are concepts that fit the genre. And this is expressed in different ways . When material painting the visual power was central to the many different materials used . Artists who were working here were Jaap Wagemaker (1906-1975) , Bram Bogart (1921 ) , Alberto Burri (1915 ) , Antoni Tapies (1923 ) . In lyrical abstraction , attention was particularly looking forward to the physical movement of painters . Artists such as Georges Mathieu (1921 ) , Camille Bryen ( 1907-1977 ) , Hans Hartung ( 1904-1984 ) and Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze , better known as Wols ( 1913-1951 ) can be accommodated . Flow in this In tachisme , derived from the French word tache , stain or blemish that means , they focused on the expressive movement in the writing of the artist. Patrick Heron (1920 ) , Pierre Soulages (1919 ) and Henri Michaux ( 1899-1984 ) are some artists who fit into this style .
Arte Povera , or poor art , the term was coined for a group of artists where he had worked a lot with the Italian critic and curator Germano Celant (1940 ) in 1967 : Giovanni Anselmo (1934 ) , Alighiero e Boetti ( 1940-1994 ) By Paolo Calzolari (1943 ) , Luciano Fabro (1936 ) , Mario Merz (1925) , Marisa Merz (1931 ) Giulio Paolini (1940 ) , Pino Pascali ( 1935-1968 ) , Giuseppe Penone (1947 ) , Michelangelo Pistoletto (1933 ) , Gilberto Zorio (1944 ) and the Greek-born Jannis Kounellis (1933 ) . The term refers to the materials that artists used in their systems , assemblies and performances. For example gilded bronze , copper , granite , glass , terracotta , cloth , neon , steel , plastic , vegetables and even live animals . Mostly for art unusual materials . The term Arte Povera suggests that it is ‘poor ‘ or inexpensive materials . But that’s not true. Also it is not about artists from poor areas of Italy . Most of them come even from the industrially prosperous northern Italy . With their work they do not make the situation of the poor to the order, but they emphasize abstract concepts , such as moral decay of a society that is driven by the acquisition of material wealth . Although Arte Povera characteristic of Italy , there are terms of topics and interests other artists to mention in this context : Joseph Beuys (1921-1986) Anish Kapoor (1954 ) and Tony Gragg ( 1949) .
Art Nouveau is the French name for the German Jugendstil understanding . It was a widespread international trend in the period from about 1895 to 1914 . The name is derived from the Jugendstil in 1896 founded in Munich art magazine Jugend . The artists of this movement are opposed to the neo – historicist styles and sought a renewal of art. The ornamental decor – tive style is characterized by the stylized , organic , often asymmetrical forms of ornaments and arabesques . Especially in crafts and art nouveau architecture came to flourish.
The Baroque style is the most important European art between 1600 and 1750 . The name was derived from the Portuguese word ” barocco ” , an irregular shaped pearl . The word was first used in the first half of the 19th century and served as an indication for the style , which is between Renaissance and Classicism . The Baroque is characterized by a strong movement of forms , the expression of power and the abolition of boundaries between painting , sculpture and architecture. Other concepts are the strong plastic, the emphasis on pathos , the preference for pomp and increasing the size of artwork . Every European country has its own baroque style .
The Cobra Group was an international group of mostly northern European artists who joined from 1948 to 1951 for the people to propagate . Their vision of a new expressionist art The name comes from the first letters of the cities in which the main representatives of the Cobra movement were derived : Copenhagen , Brussels and Amsterdam . The members of Cobra were strongly opposed to the rational , analytical principles of geometric abstraction , the dogmatism of the Social Realism and the decency of the Ecole de Paris . All common styles of the period. Cobra rejected the traditions of figurative and abstract painting off . Instead, they adapted elements of both currents far, with the aim to push the boundaries of art and creating . Universal popular art
Important artists include: Constant (1920 ) , Karel Appel (1921 ) , Corneille (1922 ) , Asger Jorn ( 1914-1973 ) , Pierre Alechinsky (1927 ) and Christian Dotremont ( 1924-1979 ) .
From 1970 , the Conceptual Art movement up as . Basic rule of this form of art is that the ideas or concepts are the real thing, not the (possible ) tangible result. Whether to Offer Art , Performance Art , Installation art , video or sound art , is Land Art or Fluxus activities, object , installation , operation or documentation is considered nothing more than a means to present the concept. The following artists had close associations with conceptual work : John Baldessari (1931 ) , Robert Barry (1936 ) , Mel Bochner (1940 ) , Dan Graham (1942 ) , William Wegman (1942 ) , Joseph Beuys ( 1912-1986 ) , Hans Haacke (1936 ) , Gerhard Richter (1932 ) , Marcel Broodthaers ( 1924-1976 ) and Jan Dibbets (1941 ) .
Classicism is an indication of a direction in art and architecture that is inspired by the ideals and shaping the art of classical antiquity . Classicism in painting has spread in the second half of the 17th century throughout Europe . In general, it was limited to the use of classical motifs that we encountered in the literature or by coins, reliefs , and the like . Scenes from Greek and Roman mythology and history were selected as a subject , without it its classic compositional schemes or language took shape . The style was in the Netherlands mainly propagated by Gerard de Lairesse and Arnold Houbraken .
The Brucke was an important German artists group in the years 1905 – 1913 , which was strongly influenced by a flow as Fauvism . The initiative to set up this group started from Ernst Ludwig Kirchner . The visual language of form limited mainly to basic elements and intense color planes . In addition, they found the content of the work is more important than for example the composition or other artistic principles . They showed among other things inspired by primitive cultures . Nude Scenes in the wild were here favorite, because it vitality and optimum nature experience could be expressed . To this end they made common trips to Lake Moritzburg near Dresden . But also issues such as anxiety and loneliness played an important role in their work . Together they read the texts of Friedrich Nietzsche , who therefore gave them the theoretical basis for their creative ideas . Besides painting belonged mainly the graphics and especially the woodcut to the arts , which they reached their own and innovative expression . Important artists include: Schmidt – Rottluff , Fritz Bleyl , Erich Heckel , Emile Nolde and Kees van Dongen
DER BLAUE REITER
Der Blaue Reiter is the name of a changing group of Expressionist artists in Germany, which was founded by including Wassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc in 1911. Munich The name is derived from the same painting from 1903 by Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky . The group had no members and had no definite program . They exhibited together with French sympathizers until the outbreak of WWI in 1914 . Der Blaue Reiter and Brucke were the two main groups of German expressionism . The painters of der- blaue reiter – occupied themselves with visual impressions , but also with the color that they could give to . The work of the painters of such blaue reiter – is permeated with the ornamental – world romantic idea of the Art Nouveau movement in Munich at that time . Important artists include: Gabriele Munter , Alfred Kubin , August Macke , Paul Klee , Jawlensky and Robert Delauney .
Dada or Dadaism is a literary and artistic movement that emerged during the First World War as a response to expressionism. This anti – flow ( Zurich 1916) , rather than a style mentality , focused primarily on war and misery . Characteristic of the multifarious works and actions of the Dadaists were mainly the denial of any bourgeois idealistic culture that they held partly responsible for the situation defined by war and authoritarian conventions during and after the First World War. Later, all forms of life , culture and art taken care of provocative manner . They tried to make . Defined in the palpable nonsense Dadaism was declared dead in 1922 at a conference for Dadaists and Constructivists by Tristan Tzara . Dada raised himself to escape . The institutionalization Dada offered no alternative. The premise was that needed to be there. Clean sweep Each had but then find its own way . But after the death certificate of Dada Dadaists were much true to their principles . Characterized as Theo van Doesburg in 1923 dada as follows : For each “yes” Dada sees the same ‘no’ . Dada is yes – no : a bird on four legs , a ladder without sports, without a squared corners . Dada has as much as positiva negativa . Other important artists : Hans Arp , Max Ernst , Feininger , Kurt Schwitters , Oscar Kokoschka and Giorgio Chirico .
Innovative Dutch art movement in the visual arts and architecture from about 1915-1930 , which was sought harmony and balance through an abstract geometric form language as primary areas of color , even black, white and gray , and horizontal and vertical lines ( later diagonals ) . The establishment of De Stijl in 1917 – is to some extent a response to the First World War. Netherlands kept its neutrality during the war , but here grew the avant -garde and the resistance against the existing order . In dada led opposition to nihilism but De Stijl was driven to idealism . Facing the chaos of everyday suggested Style a world of inner peace , harmony and order in the prospect to achieve through the spiritualization of man. In painting Style meant rigorous rejection of any illusionistic representation . Nature was too material to individual . The ‘ universal ‘ art left only the abstract composition as ` balance of position and proportion of paint ‘ . Main artists: Piet Mondrian , Theo van Doesburg , JJ Old ( architect ) and Gerrit Rietveld ( architect) .
The starting point of existentialism is that man alone in the world and that there is no moral or religious order which he can fall back . On the one hand , man is forced to its isolation , the futility and absurdity of life is to penetrate. On the other hand he has the freedom to determine its essence and to reshape itself. Using any form of action These themes lived significantly in the years immediately after the oorlog.Een artwork derives its existential character not to a specific style, but the atmosphere and the thoughts it evokes . The works can abstract, figure, or a combination thereof. Important artists include: Jean Fautrier (1898-1964) , Germaine Richier (1904-1959) , Francis Gruber (1912-1948) , Alberto Giacometti (1901-1960) , Francis Bacon (1909-1992) and Bram van Velde ( 1895 – 1981).
Whether it takes the form of performance art , assemblies , games , concerts and publications , the basic idea behind Fluxus activities is that life itself can be experienced as art. The term ” Fluxus ” was coined in 1961 by George Maciunas ( 1931-1978 ) to emphasize . The ever-changing nature of the group But also to distinguish between the various activities , media , disciplines , nationalities , genders , professions and approaches that prevailed within the group connections. Fluxus developed in a short time to a growing community of artists . Famous names are : George Brecht (1925) , Filiou ( 1926-1987 ) , Dick Higgins ( 1938-1998 ) , Alison Knowles (1933 ) , Yoko Ono (1933 ) , Nam June Paik (1932 ) , Dieter Roth ( 1930-1998 ) , Daniel Spoerri (1930 ) , Ben Vautier (1935 ) , Wolf Vostell ( 1932-1998 ) , Robert Watts ( 1923-1988 ) , Emmett Williams ( 195 ) and La Monte Young ( 1935)
Avant – garde movement in Italy and later in Russia. In 1909 the Italian poet Marinetti proclaimed his Futurist Manifesto . The Futurism (1908 – ca.1918 ) was a comprehensive socio-cultural movement that glorified the modern era with new techniques and machines . Mobility , dynamism , strength and drama are characteristic aspects of Futurism . The Soviet Union had a futuristic movement ( ca.1911 – ca.1917 ) .
Style Form , mainly apply to the Western European architecture and sculpture from the mid- 12th century . Typically the vertical direction , the ” elongated ness” and the use of pointed arches in the architecture.
Hard edge is english for: hard edge , sharp edge . It is a form of abstract painting , which is part of the Postpainterly Abstraction and as such a response to abstract expressionism . The hard-edge (1955 – ca.1969 ) direction was a movement that was clearly based more on the intellect . Emphasis is placed on the ( inter) action of contrasting colors . These are applied in uniform geometric , or organic forms and by means of its sharp boundaries separated from each other . Hard edge artists work cool and impersonal. Traces of the manufacturing method are hardly visible. They make use of colors with the aim of observing the colors to intensify . Often arise large monochrome color fields , the limits of which are touching sharp , so that the eye a line or border between place . Important artists include: Kenneth Noland , Elsworth Kelly and Frank Stella .
The development of Impressionism in France starting in 1874 with a group exhibition of painters , which, however, only after 1877 as a result of the ‘ impression ‘ dubbed painting by Claude Monet disparaging were appointed . As Impressionists Impressionists try to give that to them as nature occurs again : a constant play of light and color . This group of artists focused from 1863, in contrast to the usual , academic views, not in a direct observation of the environment . A rapid method they tried to capture . Their impression of it on the canvas their fleeting impressions , They had a lot of attention for the functioning of the natural light and the effect thereof on the colors. Different lighting conditions could give a subject a very different look . Because of their rapid method often resemble their works unfinished and sketchy . This was characterized along with their preference for everyday , non- idealized subjects , the main reason for the rejection of their views by the official art world ( Salon ) . Impressionism is the first step towards the emancipation of the color relative to the relationship to the depicted object and thus the transition from classical to modern painting .
Cubism is a revolutionary art movement which George Braque and Pablo Picasso in 1907 laid the foundation . The flow can be divided into three periods : the geometric ( 1907-10 ) , the analytical ( 1910-12 ) and synthetic ( 1912-20 ) , with strong caesura in 1914 at the outbreak of World War I. Characteristic of Cubism is striving to give . Most characteristic of a mold The reality is translated into abstracted , geometric shapes , with different angles in an image are combined . A common technique was the collage , with different materials such as oil , newsprint , textile etc. were combined .
Land art is a direction in which artistic activities by landscape changes. This can be done by using materials that are foreign to nature or to make changes to the original structure , such as digging canals , building walls etc. The land – use changes art is thus a form of action art can usually be achieved only for a short time and that as to commercialism in art tries to escape . The land art , which in the mid- sixties came in response to the increasing commercialization of the art and the traditional context of gallery and museum , was a direct dialogue with the natural environment . Some artists took nature’s gallery Inside ( Mary ) , while others worked in the landscape itself and by plowing , digging , leveling and hacked ~ often using bulldozers and excavators in abstract formations changed ~ r – ( Smithson ) . A more sophisticated form of land art is found in the work of British artist Andy Goldsworthy and Long, who in the middle of the landscape made by such means as leaves and stones . Artwork Land art is often large in scope and is often far from civilization established : it is also usually not sustainable in nature and subject to the erosive forces of nature . For any kind of consolidation is therefore they almost always rely on photographic documentation. Important artists include: The Mary Smithson , Andy Goldsworthy , Long and Christo .
Minimalism came between 1963 and 1965 to the attention of the art world of New York , after solo exhibitions of Donald Judd ( 1928-1994 ) , Robert Morris (1931 ) , Dan Flavin ( 1933-1996 ) and Carl Andre (1935 ) . Although Minimalism no organized group or movement , it was one of the many names that were used to describe these artists and others produced. Seemingly simple geometric constructions by critics The artists themselves were not really liked the name because they felt it had a negative implication . Their work it seemed to be dismissed as simplistic and meaningless . Great examples for the Minimalist artists were the Russian Constructivists and Suprematists , especially those whose work tended to deliberate abstraction . Minimalism established itself as a movement after the major exhibition “Primary Structures : Younger American and British Sculptors ” in 1966 at the Jewish Museum in New York . Not long after began the term ‘ Minimalism ‘ to be used for work of American sculptor Carl Andre (1935 ) , Richard Artschwager (1923 ) , Ronald Sheets ( 1918-1988 ) , Larry Bell ( 1939) , Dan Flavin ( 1933-1996 ) , Donald Judd (1928-1994) , Sol LeWitt (1928 ) , Robert Morris (1931 ) , Beverly Pepper (1924 ) , Richard Serra (1939 ) and Tony Smith ( 1912-1980 ) . And the English artist Sir Anthony Caro (1924 ) , Philip King (1934 ) , William Tucker (1935 ) and Tim Scott (1937 ) .
Mannerism with the period 1530-1600 , ie the time between the Renaissance and Baroque periods , indicated . One distinguishes here one of these two different eras style , which is widely regarded as contrived negative. For the area north of the Alps is the term used for artists Renaissance elements processed in their art . The Haarlem Mannerists as Hendrick Goltzius (1558-1617) and Karel van Mander (1548-1606) , are a clear example of this. Achievements of Italian art were an important element in their work . But in the Mannerism dominated contrived poses and somewhat exaggerated proportions .
Modernism, actually more an attitude than a specific art style , was a phenomenon that occurred in the early twentieth century as a sort of confession of faith in the tradition of the new . Ranging from the painting of the glitterati by the Impressionists ( Liebermann ) to the radical new style of the Cubists ( Braque and Pablo Picasso ) , artists increasingly seeking a visual equivalent for modern living and thinking. Modernism includes numerous avant – garde movements from the first half of the twentieth eeuw.De modernist ideology is called . Traditional anti – The modernists saw their pursuits and interests as a break with the traditions of art. They looked in the nineteenth century, especially for a fairly mythical past , in the modernist loved one ‘s eyes on an equally vague and mythical future . The fairly general aversion to the use of ornament can thus understand in this sense : the ornament in the nineteenth century was mostly of historical origin, was not among the pure , formal means of architecture and design as well as the psychological mechanism of association belonged in the eyes of the modernists do not belong to these resources , which is the essence of architecture and design.
Vanaf 1980Neo expressionism is the name for the rise of aparently spontaneous figurative painting that entered at about 1980 the artcicuit with a lot of excitement and controverse. Another name ‘new painting’ is in vogue, especially with The Netherlands. This one covers a broader range of styles and not only the intensified expressionism of the so-called ‘wild painters’. The two names dilute after 1985. Along with the ‘return’ of the figurative painting the postmodernism sets in. Especially young German painters (Neue Wilden) are associated with Neo expressionism (Heftige Malerei Mulheimer Freiheit). Many young artists who are looking for meaningfull images dismissedthe, seen as rational, art of the seventies. They break the taboo on representation and distantiate themselves from the ideologies that are connected with the use of certain styles. This ‘new painting’ is distinguished by a variety of styles: lyric expressionism, graffity, conscientious realism and the agressive expressionism of the ‘neue wilden’. The influence of this last tendency decreases after 1982. Figuration and subjectivity stay as the aspects which are worked with in an individual manner. In the ‘new painting’ one reverts publicly to technices, genres, styles and images from the history of art. They are guided also by personal background, European and national traditions and local culture (there is talk about subcultures in Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne and about Young Italians, French, Frisian, Brabantine, etcetera).
Some of the Artists
Duitsland: Elvira Bach, Ina Barfuss, Werner Buttner, Rainer Fetting, Antonius Hockelmann, Anselm Kiefer, Martin Kippenberger, Bernd Koberling, Albert Oehlen, Markus Oehlen, Eugen Schonebeck, Andreas Schulze, Volker Tannert, Thomas Wachweger, Bernd Zimmer
V.S.: Richard Bosman, Troy Brauntuch, Eric Fischl, Jack Goldstein, Neil Jenney, Susan Rothenberger, David Salle, Julian Schnabel
Neopop refers to the work of several artists who appeared at the end of the eighties of the twentieth century in the New York art world . For example, Ashley Bickerton (1959 ) , Jeff Koons (1955 ) , Alan McCollum (1944 ) and Haim Steinbach (1944 ) . The methods , materials and images of the Pop Art of the sixties as a starting point , Neopop gave the heritage again a form of conceptual art in the most ironic and objective sense . The separation between kitsch and art no longer existed . Koons children transformed into an extensive , lasting monument , reminiscent of Claes Oldenburg’s ironic perpetuation of Pop Art. Other artists are Cady Noland (1956 ) , Vitaly Komar (1943 ) , Damien Hirst (1965 ) , Gary Hume (1962 ) and Gavin Turk (1967 ) .
The Neo – Classicism is a style that made itself felt . Between 1780 and 1820 The focus was on both the Roman and the Greek art . It attached particular significance to strict , clear and bright shapes. The style can be seen as a reaction to the Baroque and Rococo . Opposite the exuberant decoration of these styles they demanded a return to clarity and purity . In painting are especially David and Ingres key representatives .
Neo – Impressionism is a direction at the end of the 19th century , especially Georges Seurat which played an important role . Seurat was based on a scientific distribution of colors was developed . Chevreul in 1839 by the physicist Only unmixed colors were put next to each other in small spots or points . The complementary effect and the contrast of the color spots on the one hand a strong vibrating light obtained . On the other hand a certain stylization was inevitable . The result is that there is an optical color mixing is carried out by remote sensing . Seurat’s method was in fact a tightening of the problem of light that the Impressionists loved so busy . The Neo – Impressionism is also known under the names Isme Division and Pointillism .
Although all art is to some extent dependent on optical illusions , are at Op Art specific optical phenomena used to bring . Normal perceptual processes in confusion On -arts paintings are mostly made up of precise geometric black and white patterns or arrangements of lurid colors and moiré effects and create illusions of movement . The participation of the viewer in order to create the job. In this way art works on ‘ virtual ‘ works that encourage the viewer to not only the perception and thought processes to think , but also about the deceptive nature of reality . Art is in the mid-sixties of the twentieth century, introduced by the fashion conscious art world of New York who sought a replacement for Pop Art . Op Art is short for optical art and their names has a clear reference to Pop Art . Important On – artkunstenaars are : Richard Anuszkiewcz 1930) , Larry Poons (1937 ) , Michael Kidner (1917 ) , Bridget Riley (1931 ) and Victor Vasarely ( 1908-1997 ) .
POST PAINTERLY ABSTRACTION
At the end of the fifties , the Abstract Expressionism now divided into several American abstract painting styles : Hard edge , Stain painting , Washington color painters , Systemic painting and Minimal painting . In addition, a new generation Expressionists added. Generally avoided this ‘new’ abstract artists overt emotionalism of Abstract Expressionism and they rejected the expressive , dynamic brushstrokes and tactile surfaces such as the Action Painters favor of cooler , anonymous methods . Although they had certain visual characteristics and painting techniques in common with the Abstract Expressionists like Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko , they did not share in the transcendental conceptions that the older generation had artists about art . Instead , they stressed the painting as an object rather than illusion . Shaped canvases, canvases which a specific form is given , gave the unity between the painted image and the shape and size of the canvas again .
The influential American art critic Clement Greenberg (1909-1994) , the term ‘Post Painterly Abstraction ‘ coined in 1964 for an exhibition at the Los Angeles Museum of Art, where he was curator. Important artists include: Ellsworth Kelly (1923 ) , Frank Stella (1936 ) , Helen Frankenthaler (1928 ) , Morris Louis ( 1912-1962 ) , Kenneth Noland (1924 ) , Josef Albers ( 1888-1976 ) , Ad Reinhardt ( 1913-1967 ) , Agnes Martin (1912 ) and Robert Ryman (1930 ) .
The work ” Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different , so appealing ?” ( 1956) by the English artist Richard Hamilton (1922 ) is called the first true Pop art works .
The term Postmodernism is associated with certain new artistic expressions in the last quarter of the 20th century. Initially the term was used for buildings in the mid-1970s. They gave up the clean, rational minimalist forms, in favor of ambiguous, conflicting constructions that were enlivened by playful references to historical styles, to other cultures borrowed elements and the use of surprising vibrant colours. Postmodernism is characterized by its multidisciplinary nature, where the boundaries between architecture, Visual Arts, design and mass media are blurred. Artists who work on a postmodernist manner are: Julian Schnabel (1951), David Salle (1952), Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960-1988), Keith Haring (1958-1990), Barbara Kruger (1945), Jenny Holzer (1950) en Cindy Sherman (1954).
Pointillism or Divisionism is a form of Neo-impressionism. The colours are absolute as dots are put next to eachother, the colour mixing takes place on the retina of the eye. We are talking about optical color mixing. The pointillists relied on scientific theories.
The term realism stands for a type of art that targets the surrounding reality as accurately as possible. The concept dates back to the nineteenth century and was used to typing of the work of Gustave Courbet and a group of painters who rejected any form of idealization and instead focused on everyday life. The subject of their paintings was often the laboring population. In the course of the twentieth century, several artists for a variety of reasons by a realistic style served the surrealists (Dali), the painters of the neue sachlichkeit (Schad)-and the Socialist-realists (Mukhina). In the eighties, some artists began creating hyperrealistic work which has an unsettling effect because of this photographic accuracy (Close). “Realism” remains a confusing term. Perhaps our own golden age contributed to this misunderstanding. The often very realistic-looking paintings from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are known under a term like Dutch realism. These were the fine painters like Gerard Dou. The misconception therefore exists that these realists are actually fine painters. This is certainly not the case A large number of artists painted in a looser technique, however, they remain true to the visible reality. They are often called’ figuratives ‘, however, they are certainly within the scope of the present-day realisme.
The Rococo is first and foremost a decoration style in architecture and the applied arts. Especially in the period between 1730 and 1780 they experienced its peak. The style can be described as elegant, graceful and gracious. They originated in France, but the flowering took place in Germany. The colours used are mostly light: pink, white, light blue, light yellow, often with gold worked up.
Medieval style in Western Europe between ca. 1000-1250. Characteristic of the Romanesque architecture include the heavy volumes and the arches. The Romanesque painting distinguished by flat surfaces, shapes without depth, often surrounded by contour lines.
Romanticism occurred at the end of the 18th century, it was a new vision on art and reality. Roughly said, in the past the artist was the interpreter of other people’s ideas and was bound by various rules. While romanticism centers the personality of the artist, his feeling and imagination. This served to express his feelings and thoughts in his works of art. Biblical, mythological and classical stories no longer played the lead role, but there was room created for sagas, legends and other motives that are not part of the standard repertoire. Hereforth, the artist decided what he portrayed and how he portrayed it.
Superrealism is one of the many denominations, in addition to photo realism, Hyper realism and Sharp Focus Realism, for a particular type of painting and sculpture that in the seventies of the twentieth century especially in America’s familiarity. During the glory days of abstraction, minimalism and conceptual art, a number of artists committed to creating representative, descriptive, illusionistic paintings and sculptures. Most of the paintings are copied from photos, while most images are manufactured on the basis of body casts, making them almost not ‘ real ‘. Important practitioners of Superrealism are: Chuck Close (1940), Robert Estes (1936) and Duane Hanson (1925-1996).
In 1924 Surrealism saw the light in Paris with the ‘Surreal manifesto’ by André Breton. Surrealism focused mainly on lifting the separation between the inner and the outer world, the unconscious. Association, the dream, the unrealistic, automatism, etc.They all played a role in the pursuit of portraying another, never thought or seen reality. Although the surrealist group had fallen apart for the second World War, the influence of the flow continue to exist.
Movement in the Visual Arts and literature by means of symbols refers to certain ideas, feelings or attitudes of mind. The style is often realistic and contains decorative elements. The movement emerged at the end of the 19th century. Jan Toorop was an important Dutch symbolist.
The Italian version of the Neo Expressionism is also referred to as Transavanguardia. A term that was coined by the Italian art critic Achille Bonito Oliva for the work of the artists Sandro Chia (1946), Francesco Clemente, Enzo Cucchi (1952) (1949) and Mimmo Paladino (1948). Their work indicates a return to paintings that are characterized by a certain fierceness in expression and processing and by a romantic nostalgia for the past. The term implies that these artists the progressive character of the avant-garde of the twentieth century were over. The artists intervene in their work back to early plentifully traditions of form and content that the cultural life of Italy.
Tachism is a form of abstract expressionist, French painting with emphasis on the interaction of color stains as an expression of the State of mind of the artist. Through spontaneous splashes, dripping or objects of paint ‘ stains ‘ arise.
In the 1960s, when Popartists introduced images from the mass culture in galleries and the technology of movement and sound was explored, a group of artists accepted the challenge with the most powerful new mass medium: the television. From 1959 the American artist and musician Nam June Paik (1932) began to include televisions in its installations. Early video artists combined global communication theories with elements from pop culture to video tapes, one – and multichannel productions, international satellite installations and sculptures with multiple monitors. Only towards the end of the sixties commercial galleries began to support video art. In the 1980s, worldwide museums sections for video and new media were established in major museums. At the same time, a new generation of artists who specialized in video emerged. Their work has gradually developed. Also the role of the artist has changed. In early productions the artist was often the executor or he stood behind the camera. Now the artist takes on the role of producer or editor that work in the post production phase the desired meaning. Important video artists are: Paul Ryan (1944), Ulrike Rosenbach (1949), Pipilotti Rist (1962) Dan Graham (1942) and Gary Hill (1951).